Epidural hematoma

Facts about the brain: The brain contains around billion neurons. We have all our neurons when we are babies, but they aren’t yet connected as in an adult. Further, the brain is not fully myelinated until age years. This probably explains most developmental milestones, including those of Piaget. The brain has a great deal to do with our learning, thinking, mood, speech and behavior.

Imaging in Child Abuse

If symptoms are maximal at onset, the cause is more likely to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage or an embolic stroke. Causes Thrombotic stroke Illustration of an embolic stroke, showing a blockage lodged in a blood vessel. In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus [35] blood clot usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower than that of a hemorrhagic stroke.

A thrombus itself even if it does not completely block the blood vessel can lead to an embolic stroke see below if the thrombus breaks off and travels in the bloodstream, at which point it is called an embolus. Two types of thrombosis can cause stroke:

The word “crazy” means different things to different people. A cat lady is crazy. That homeless guy on the street is crazy. Your ex girlfriend is crazy (or at least she has a personality disorder).. However, there is a much more interesting, much more dangerous form of crazy – psychosis.

Brain Contusions Simply explained, a brain contusion is a bruise of the brain tissue. Just like bruises that occur on other parts of the body, a brain contusion is caused by small blood vessel leaks. Because they involve structural brain damage, contusions are more serious than concussions. Get a Free Legal Evaluation Causes of Brain Contusions Brain contusions are most often caused by an impact to the head , such as those sustained in a car accident, a fall, or a sports-related accident.

In some cases the brain is injured right below the site of impact, while in other cases the injury occurs on the opposite side of the impact. Contusions are most often found in cortical tissue, in areas that are near sharp ridges on the inside of the skull, such as under the frontal and temporal lobes and on the root of the ocular orbit.

Age determination of subdural hematomas with CT and MRI: a systematic review.

Symptoms of physical abuse in children, especially infants, are often nonspecific and may overlap with numerous other clinical conditions. Therefore, radiologists play a key role in identifying imaging findings to make the diagnosis of physical child abuse. Although many injury patterns may be seen with both accidental and nonaccidental trauma, there are some characteristic findings and injury patterns of abuse that should be recognized by radiologists who interpret pediatric imaging studies.

Immunity tends to wane by 20 percent a month, leaving those who got their shot in August or September with less than desirable protection by the time they’re exposed.

The estimation of time since injury in cases of subdural haemorrhage has been studied only by a few investigators on the histological and radiological front. Materials and Methods The study included a total of cases of closed head injury with subdural haemorrhage. Results Statistically significant results were obtained between the HU measurements of the SDH and the post-traumatic intervals and were found to be statistically significant.

A rough attempt was made to determine the effect of haematoma volume on attenuation and was found out to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion The density of the subdural haematoma decreases with increase in the post-traumatic interval that concurs with the limited number of studies being conducted in the past. We concluded that further sorting of cases could be done according to its age with additional research and uniformity in the methodology.

Attenuation coefficient, Computed tomography, Post-traumatic interval, Subdural haemorrhage, Volume Introduction Subdural Haemorrhage SDH is a form of brain haemorrhage in which there is a collection of blood between the dura and the arachnoid layers of the meninges. It is usually associated with mechanical brain injury [ 1 ].

Judicial View > Federal Cases > Torts > Doctor Sued Over Late Diagnosis of Subdural Hematoma

People may vary widely in their symptoms of subdural hematoma. Besides the size of the subdural hematoma, a person’s age and other medical conditions can affect the response to having a subdural hematoma. Diagnosis of Subdural Hematoma People who come to medical attention after a head injury often undergo head imaging, usually with computed tomography CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan.

A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers between the inner layer of the dura mater and the arachnoid mater. Usually resulting from tears in bridging veins which cross the subdural space, subdural hemorrhages may cause an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), which can cause compression of and damage to delicate brain tissue.

Posted on by pediatriceducationmin Patient Presentation A 4-month-old female was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit after she presented with 9 days of emesis. She initially began vomiting once per day but this increased to several times per day over days. She was seen by a local health care provider who admitted her locally. She improved with intravenous fluid by the next day and was discharged home. Three days later she began to have emesis again and her mother noticed her crossing her eyes.

She was again seen by her local health care provider who noticed a large fontanelle. A computed tomography scan of her head revealed bilateral subdural hematomas and she was referred for neurosurgical care. The past medical history revealed a healthy female who was born full-term by scheduled caesarean section because her mother had had a previous caesarean section.

She had been seen for normal health supervision visits and had her 2-month immunizations.

Head Circumference: A Key Sign in Dating Abusive Head Trauma

Yet that was not enough for you to order a CT scan? Because she had it several times before and in previous admissions as well. Based on your question overruled.

A seizure, technically known as an epileptic seizure, is a period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Outward effects vary from uncontrolled shaking movements involving much of the body with loss of consciousness (tonic-clonic seizure), to shaking movements involving only part of the body with variable levels of consciousness (focal seizure.

On April 11, , the Administration for Children’s Services hereinafter petitioner filed an Article 10 petition alleging, inter alia, that the respondent mother, Yvette E. The petition further alleges that neither parent had an explanation for the child’s injuries, and the injuries were consistent with abusive head trauma. The petition also alleges that the subject child, Joshua D. The fact finding hearing in this matter commenced on April 28, and concluded on April 7, The Court ordered counsel to submit written summations.

As a result of the abuse of Xavier, the subject child Joshua is abused or is in imminent danger of being abused, and a derivative finding of abuse is entered. The petitioner presented the testimony of child abuse specialist Dr. Jamie Hoffman-Rosenfeld hereinafter Dr.

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Your doctor may also order a blood test to check your complete blood count. A complete blood count test measures your red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and platelet count. A low level of red blood cells can indicate significant blood loss.

Latest Medical Research about Brain Injury Updated: 13 July MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) MRS is a new diagnostic tool to detect brain injury by looking at the levels of common brain chemicals after injury.

I have an anxiety disorder on and off. This raises my BP readings. The risk here is sudden incapacitation. Still is a disqualifier. Does vertigo disqualify me from getting a medical card? When the medical examiner does his examination, one of the things he is looking for is things that would be unsafe for you as a driver and how it effects your ability to maintain control of a commercial motor vehicle.

Part of that examination is to test for virtigo.

Traumatic brain injury

This article reviews the origin of this link and casts serious doubt on the specificity of the pathophysiologic connection. The forces required to cause brain injury were derived from an experiment of high velocity impacts on monkeys, that generated forces far above those which might occur with a shaking mechanism. These forces, if present, would invariably cause neck trauma, which is conspicuously absent in most babies allegedly injured by shaking. Subdural hematoma may also be the result of common birth trauma, complicated by prenatal vitamin D deficiency, which also contributes to the appearance of long bone fractures commonly associated with child abuse.

Retinal hemorrhage is a non-specific finding that occurs with many causes of increased intracranial pressure, including infection and hypoxic brain injury.

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Hearing loss or hearing ringing tinnitus Blurred Vision Causes[ edit ] Subdural hematomas are most often caused by head injury , when rapidly changing velocities within the skull may stretch and tear small bridging veins. Subdural hematomas due to head injury are described as traumatic. Much more common than epidural hemorrhages , subdural hemorrhages generally result from shearing injuries due to various rotational or linear forces.

Subdural hematoma is also commonly seen in the elderly and in alcoholics, who have evidence of cerebral atrophy. Cerebral atrophy increases the length the bridging veins have to traverse between the two meningeal layers, hence increasing the likelihood of shearing forces causing a tear. It is also more common in patients on anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs , such as warfarin and aspirin.

Subdural Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Imaging Challenges and Controversies

Download powerpoint Fig 5. Axial NCCT demonstrates large bilateral subdural collections hyperattenuating to CSF white arrows and a hyperattenuating subdural compartment neomembrane black arrow. On T2WI, the subdural fluid is isointense to CSF white arrows and nicely demonstrates multiple neomembranes black arrows.

The ability to identify child abuse constitutes an important concern to those involved in the medical care of children. Studies show that at least 10% of children under 5 years old who are brought to the emergency room with alleged accidents have actually suffered nonaccidental trauma.

Uscinski described an experiment set up by A. Ommaya who “devised an experiment to measure more precisely the amount of rotational acceleration necessary to reach the threshold of injury. A contoured fiberglass chair was built, mounted on wheels, and placed on tracks with a piston behind it. Rhesus monkeys were strapped into the chair with their heads free to rotate. The piston then impacted the chair, simulating a rear-end motor vehicle collision. Ommaya was able to produce intracranial injury in 19 of the animals, with 11 of them also demonstrating neck injury.

At that time it was shown quantitatively that impact was required to generate adequate force. Yet no laboratory proof of this possibility has ever been put forth. In fact, the available experimental evidence, beginning as far back as , addressed directly in and reproduced in , seems to indicate the contrary. Supposedly, the clearer the symptoms, the more sure the diagnosis of SBS.

As detailed below, accidental falls were the only observed cause of these symptoms. The shaken baby syndrome is a form of child abuse in young children.


Physicians have an ethical and legal mandate to identify abused children so that they may be protected from further harm and are simultaneously required to think broadly and objectively about differential diagnoses. The medical literature is replete with examples of medical diseases that mimic abuse, potentially leading to misdiagnoses and subsequent harm to children and families. This review highlights some of the common and uncommon diseases that mimic physical and sexual abuse of children.

Christian provides medical-legal expert work in child abuse cases. Published January 25,

Adequate oxygen is vital for the brain. Many factors can cause the brain to receive inadequate oxygen. When oxygen levels are significantly low for four minutes or longer, brain cells begin to die and after five minutes permanent anoxic brain injury can occur.

Lumpy Like any combination of these characteristics When you push on a hematoma, it may move around under the skin, feeling uncomfortable or even painful. Though these signs and symptoms may be disconcerting, they are not usually a cause for alarm. Usually, the body will eventually reabsorb the blood that formed the hematoma without any need for treatment.

Treatment for Bruising Bruises will generally heal on their own, but treatment may help a hematoma heal faster and in some cases, offer relief from any pain or discomfort. There are many ways to treat this issue , including: Applying a cold pack to the site of the bruise during the first hours.

Introducing MRI: MR Imaging of Hemorrhage (52 of 56)